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great empire

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Philip was then named Hegemon often translated as "Supreme Commander" of this league known by modern scholars as the League of Corinth , and announced his plans to attack the Persian Empire.

When Philip returned to Pella, he fell in love with and married Cleopatra Eurydice , the niece of his general Attalus.

At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece.

This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, "You villain," said he, "what, am I then a bastard?

At which Alexander reproachfully insulted over him: Alexander fled Macedon with his mother, dropping her off with her brother, King Alexander I of Epirus in Dodona , capital of the Molossians.

However, it appears Philip never intended to disown his politically and militarily trained son. In the following year, the Persian satrap governor of Caria , Pixodarus , offered his eldest daughter to Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus.

When Philip heard of this, he stopped the negotiations and scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian, explaining that he wanted a better bride for him.

Alexander was proclaimed king on the spot by the nobles and army at the age of Alexander began his reign by eliminating potential rivals to the throne.

He had his cousin, the former Amyntas IV , executed. Olympias had Cleopatra Eurydice and Europa, her daughter by Philip, burned alive.

When Alexander learned about this, he was furious. Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus, [39] who was in command of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor and Cleopatra's uncle.

Attalus was at that time corresponding with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. Attalus also had severely insulted Alexander, and following Cleopatra's murder, Alexander may have considered him too dangerous to leave alive.

News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes north of Macedon. When news of the revolts reached Alexander, he responded quickly.

Though advised to use diplomacy, Alexander mustered 3, Macedonian cavalry and rode south towards Thessaly.

When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force.

He then continued south towards the Peloponnese. Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth.

Athens sued for peace and Alexander pardoned the rebels. The famous encounter between Alexander and Diogenes the Cynic occurred during Alexander's stay in Corinth.

When Alexander asked Diogenes what he could do for him, the philosopher disdainfully asked Alexander to stand a little to the side, as he was blocking the sunlight.

He also received news of a Thracian uprising. Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard his northern borders. Starting from Amphipolis , he travelled east into the country of the "Independent Thracians"; and at Mount Haemus , the Macedonian army attacked and defeated the Thracian forces manning the heights.

Alexander then marched for three days to the Danube , encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore. Crossing the river at night, he surprised them and forced their army to retreat after the first cavalry skirmish.

News then reached Alexander that Cleitus , King of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulantii were in open revolt against his authority.

Marching west into Illyria, Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing the two rulers to flee with their troops. With these victories, he secured his northern frontier.

While Alexander campaigned north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once again. Alexander immediately headed south.

The Theban resistance was ineffective, and Alexander razed the city and divided its territory between the other Boeotian cities.

The end of Thebes cowed Athens, leaving all of Greece temporarily at peace. This also showed Alexander's eagerness to fight, in contrast to his father's preference for diplomacy.

After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus , Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis ; he then proceeded along the Ionian coast, granting autonomy and democracy to the cities.

Miletus, held by Achaemenid forces, required a delicate siege operation, with Persian naval forces nearby. Further south, at Halicarnassus , in Caria , Alexander successfully waged his first large-scale siege , eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria, Orontobates , to withdraw by sea.

From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities to deny the Persians naval bases.

From Pamphylia onwards the coast held no major ports and Alexander moved inland. At Termessos , Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city.

After a long pause due to an illness, he marched on towards Syria. Though outmanoeuvered by Darius' significantly larger army, he marched back to Cilicia, where he defeated Darius at Issus.

Darius fled the battle, causing his army to collapse, and left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis , and a fabulous treasure.

Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial divisions. When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated.

However, Alexander met with resistance at Gaza. The stronghold was heavily fortified and built on a hill, requiring a siege. When "his engineers pointed out to him that because of the height of the mound it would be impossible… this encouraged Alexander all the more to make the attempt".

As in Tyre, men of military age were put to the sword and the women and children were sold into slavery. Gaugamela would be the final and decisive encounter between the two.

Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana modern Hamedan , while Alexander captured Babylon. From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa , one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its treasury.

Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city. He then stormed the pass of the Persian Gates in the modern Zagros Mountains which had been blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes and then hurried to Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury.

On entering Persepolis, Alexander allowed his troops to loot the city for several days. Possible causes include a drunken accident or deliberate revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Persian War by Xerxes.

Shall I pass by and leave you lying there because of the expeditions you led against Greece, or shall I set you up again because of your magnanimity and your virtues in other respects?

Alexander then chased Darius, first into Media, and then Parthia. Alexander viewed Bessus as a usurper and set out to defeat him.

This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia. Alexander founded a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate "The Furthest" in modern Tajikistan.

Spitamenes , who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana, in BC betrayed Bessus to Ptolemy , one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus was executed.

Alexander personally defeated the Scythians at the Battle of Jaxartes and immediately launched a campaign against Spitamenes, defeating him in the Battle of Gabai.

After the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace. During this time, Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis , either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians showed to their social superiors.

This cost him the sympathies of many of his countrymen, and he eventually abandoned it. A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas , was executed for failing to alert Alexander.

The death of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion , who had been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana , was assassinated at Alexander's command, to prevent attempts at vengeance.

Most infamously, Alexander personally killed the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black , during a violent drunken altercation at Maracanda modern day Samarkand in Uzbekistan , in which Cleitus accused Alexander of several judgmental mistakes and most especially, of having forgotten the Macedonian ways in favour of a corrupt oriental lifestyle.

Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages. His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus , was implicated in the plot, and in the Anabasis of Alexander , Arrian states that Callisthenes and the pages were then tortured on the rack as punishment, and likely died soon after.

When Alexander set out for Asia, he left his general Antipater , an experienced military and political leader and part of Philip II's "Old Guard", in charge of Macedon.

In general, Greece enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity during Alexander's campaign in Asia. After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana Raoxshna in Old Iranian to cement relations with his new satrapies, Alexander turned to the Indian subcontinent.

He invited the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara a region presently straddling eastern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan , to come to him and submit to his authority.

Omphis Indian name Ambhi , the ruler of Taxila , whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes Jhelum , complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas , refused to submit.

Alexander not only returned Ambhi his title and the gifts but he also presented him with a wardrobe of "Persian robes, gold and silver ornaments, 30 horses and 1, talents in gold".

Alexander was emboldened to divide his forces, and Ambhi assisted Hephaestion and Perdiccas in constructing a bridge over the Indus where it bends at Hund Fox , supplied their troops with provisions, and received Alexander himself, and his whole army, in his capital city of Taxila, with every demonstration of friendship and the most liberal hospitality.

On the subsequent advance of the Macedonian king, Taxiles accompanied him with a force of 5, men and took part in the battle of the Hydaspes River.

After that victory he was sent by Alexander in pursuit of Porus, to whom he was charged to offer favourable terms, but narrowly escaped losing his life at the hands of his old enemy.

Subsequently, however, the two rivals were reconciled by the personal mediation of Alexander; and Taxiles, after having contributed zealously to the equipment of the fleet on the Hydaspes, was entrusted by the king with the government of the whole territory between that river and the Indus.

A considerable accession of power was granted him after the death of Philip , son of Machatas; and he was allowed to retain his authority at the death of Alexander himself BC , as well as in the subsequent partition of the provinces at Triparadisus , BC.

Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought in the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos. The fort of Massaga was reduced only after days of bloody fighting, in which Alexander was wounded seriously in the ankle.

According to Curtius , "Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubble.

In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. Alexander followed close behind and captured the strategic hill-fort after four bloody days.

He appointed Porus as satrap, and added to Porus' territory land that he did not previously own, towards the south-east, up to the Hyphasis Beas.

Fearing the prospect of facing other large armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, Alexander's army mutinied at the Hyphasis River Beas , refusing to march farther east.

As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India.

For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants.

For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand war elephants.

Alexander tried to persuade his soldiers to march farther, but his general Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return; the men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland".

Alexander eventually agreed and turned south, marching along the Indus. Along the way his army conquered the Malhi in modern-day Multan and other Indian tribes and Alexander sustained an injury during the siege.

Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania modern southern Iran with general Craterus , and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus , while he led the rest back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran.

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed several of them as examples on his way to Susa.

His troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis. They refused to be sent away and criticized his adoption of Persian customs and dress and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units.

After three days, unable to persuade his men to back down, Alexander gave Persians command posts in the army and conferred Macedonian military titles upon Persian units.

The Macedonians quickly begged forgiveness, which Alexander accepted, and held a great banquet for several thousand of his men at which he and they ate together.

Afterwards, Alexander travelled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure. There, his closest friend and possible lover, Hephaestion , died of illness or poisoning.

Plutarch 's account is that roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained admiral Nearchus , and spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa.

The common soldiers, anxious about his health, were granted the right to file past him as he silently waved at them. Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination, [] foul play featured in multiple accounts of his death.

Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin all mentioned the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Justin stated that Alexander was the victim of a poisoning conspiracy, Plutarch dismissed it as a fabrication, [] while both Diodorus and Arrian noted that they mentioned it only for the sake of completeness.

Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon as a death sentence, [] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and Philotas, [] Antipater purportedly arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexander's wine-pourer.

The strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days passed between the start of his illness and his death; such long-acting poisons were probably not available.

Several natural causes diseases have been suggested, including malaria and typhoid fever. A article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis.

The anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestion 's death may also have contributed to his declining health. Alexander's body was laid in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus that was filled with honey, which was in turn placed in a gold casket.

While Alexander's funeral cortege was on its way to Macedon, Ptolemy seized it and took it temporarily to Memphis. Ptolemy IX Lathyros , one of Ptolemy's final successors, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could convert the original to coinage.

This would fit with the intended destination of Alexander's funeral cortege. Pompey , Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria, where Augustus, allegedly, accidentally knocked the nose off.

Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use. His son and successor, Caracalla , a great admirer, visited the tomb during his own reign.

After this, details on the fate of the tomb are hazy. The so-called " Alexander Sarcophagus ", discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum , is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions fighting the Persians and hunting.

Alexander's death was so sudden that when reports of his death reached Greece, they were not immediately believed. Arrian and Plutarch claimed that Alexander was speechless by this point, implying that this was an apocryphal story.

Perdiccas initially did not claim power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus , Leonnatus, and Antipater as guardians.

However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager , rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion.

Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings, albeit in name only.

Dissension and rivalry soon afflicted the Macedonians, however. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general used to bid for power.

Diodorus stated that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death. Alexander's will called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations.

Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander.

He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered. He overcame this by being personally involved in battle, [73] in the manner of a Macedonian king.

In his first battle in Asia, at Granicus, Alexander used only a small part of his forces, [ citation needed ] perhaps 13, infantry with 5, cavalry, against a much larger Persian force of 40, By contrast, the Persian infantry was stationed behind its cavalry.

This ensured that Alexander would not be outflanked, while his phalanx, armed with long pikes, had a considerable advantage over the Persians' scimitars and javelins.

Macedonian losses were negligible compared to those of the Persians. Alexander arranged a double phalanx, with the center advancing at an angle, parting when the chariots bore down and then reforming.

The advance was successful and broke Darius' center, causing the latter to flee once again. When faced with opponents who used unfamiliar fighting techniques, such as in Central Asia and India, Alexander adapted his forces to his opponents' style.

Thus, in Bactria and Sogdiana , Alexander successfully used his javelin throwers and archers to prevent outflanking movements, while massing his cavalry at the center.

Greek biographer Plutarch c. Whereas he was of a fair colour, as they say, and his fairness passed into ruddiness on his breast particularly, and in his face.

The semi-legendary Alexander Romance also suggests that Alexander exhibited heterochromia iridum: British historian Peter Green provided a description of Alexander's appearance, based on his review of statues and some ancient documents:.

Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough.

His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle.

His eyes one blue, one brown revealed a dewy, feminine quality. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice.

Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.

Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.

According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, [] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.

He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.

During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia. He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself.

Alexander married three times: He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon. Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion , the son of a Macedonian noble.

Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy. Aelian, however, writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus , the latter hinting that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles.

Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life.

Alexander accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly, [] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".

Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.

His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean.

Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.

Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos" , of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab , and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire.

Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name , most of them east of the Tigris.

At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons. Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest.

This culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the successor states.

The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian. The resulting syncretism known as Greco-Buddhism heavily influenced the development of Buddhism [ citation needed ] and created a culture of Greco-Buddhist art.

Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style.

Greek astronomical treatise and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy.

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was far-ranging.

In the area of architecture , a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila. Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna , especially with the Pataliputra capital , dated to the 3rd century BC.

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.

Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness.

On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly Republican figures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by republican values.

Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself. Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus , invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris , queen of the mythical Amazons.

When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time.

In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance , later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes.

This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages , [] containing many dubious stories, [] and was translated into numerous languages.

Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day.

The Alexander Romance , in particular, has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek.

Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.

In pre-Islamic Middle Persian Zoroastrian literature, Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak , meaning "accursed", and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.

The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed to "the one true God".

According to Josephus , Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel when he entered Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire.

This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem. In Hindi and Urdu , the name "Sikandar", derived from Persian, denotes a rising young talent.

Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost.

Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient king of Macedonia.

For other uses, see Alexander the Great disambiguation. History of Macedonia ancient kingdom. Government of Macedonia ancient kingdom.

Battle of the Persian Gate. The latter method provides less tribute and indirect control, but avails military forces for further expansion. The term, on occasion, has been applied to maritime empires or thalassocracies e.

This aspiration to universality resulted in conquest by converting 'outsiders' or 'inferiors' into the colonialized religion.

This association of nationality and race became complex and has had a more intense drive for expansion. An empire is a large polity which rules over territories outside of its original borders.

Definitions of what physically and politically constitute an empire vary. It might be a state affecting imperial policies or a particular political structure.

Empires are typically formed from diverse ethnic, national, cultural, and religious components. Tom Nairn and Paul James define empires as polities that "extend relations of power across territorial spaces over which they have no prior or given legal sovereignty, and where, in one or more of the domains of economics, politics, and culture, they gain some measure of extensive hegemony over those spaces for the purpose of extracting or accruing value".

Sometimes, an empire is a semantic construction, such as when a ruler assumes the title of "emperor". Examples of this form of empire are the Central African Empire , or the Korean Empire proclaimed in when Korea, far from gaining new territory, was on the verge of being annexed by the Empire of Japan , the last to use the name officially.

The terrestrial empire's maritime analogue is the thalassocracy , an empire composed of islands and coasts which are accessible to its terrestrial homeland, such as the Athenian-dominated Delian League.

Furthermore, empires can expand by both land and sea. Stephen Howe notes that empires by land can be characterized by expansion over terrain, "extending directly outwards from the original frontier" [14] while an empire by sea can be characterized by colonial expansion and empire building "by an increasingly powerful navy".

Empires originated as different types of states, although they commonly began as powerful monarchies. Ideas about empires have changed over time, ranging from public approval to universal distaste.

Empires are built out of separate units with some kind of diversity — ethnic, national, cultural, religious — and imply at least some inequality between the rulers and the ruled.

Without this inequality, the system would be seen as a commonwealth. Throughout history, the major powers of the world constantly seek to conquer other parts of the world.

Most of the powers were centralized in Europe, for example the Roman Empire. During the Age of Discovery , the idea of taking over other nations was brought back in a more modernized way.

Imperialism is the idea of a major power controlling another nation or land with the intentions to use the native people and resources to help the mother country in any way possible.

Many empires were the result of military conquest, incorporating the vanquished states into a political union, but imperial hegemony can be established in other ways.

The Empire of Brazil declared itself an empire after separating from the Portuguese Empire in France has twice transitioned from being called the French Republic to being called the French Empire while it retained an overseas empire.

Weaker states may seek annexation into the empire. The Unification of Germany as the empire accreted to the Prussian metropole was less a military conquest of the German states than their political divorce from the Austrian Empire , which formerly ruled loosely over the Holy Roman Empire.

Having convinced the other states of its military prowess, and having excluded the Austrians , Prussia dictated the terms of imperial membership.

Politically, it was typical for either a monarchy or an oligarchy , rooted in the original core territory of the empire, to continue to dominate.

Europeans began applying the designation of "empire" to non-European monarchies , such as the Qing Empire and the Mughal Empire , as well as the Maratha Empire , eventually leading to the looser denotations applicable to any political structure meeting the criteria of "imperium".

Some monarchies styled themselves as having greater size, scope, and power than the territorial, politico-military, and economic facts support.

As a consequence, some monarchs assumed the title of "emperor" or its corresponding translation, tsar , empereur , kaiser , shah etc.

Empires were seen as an expanding power, administration, ideas and beliefs followed by cultural habits from place to place.

Empires tend to impose their culture on the subject states to strengthen the imperial structure. This can have notable effects that outlast the empire itself, both positive and negative.

Achaemenid Empire of Persia at its zenith. Maurya Empire of India at its greatest extent under Ashoka the Great. This imperial achievement was repeated by Hammurabi of Babylon in the 17th century BC.

Both surpassed in territory their contemporary Near Eastern empires. The Zhou Empire dissolved in BC into feudal multi-state system which lasted for five and a half centuries until the universal conquest of Qin in BC.

The Median Empire was the first empire within the territory of Persia. By the 6th century BC, after having allied with the Babylonians to defeat the Neo-Assyrian Empire , the Medes were able to establish their own empire, which was the largest of its day and lasted for about sixty years.

The Roman Empire under Trajan 98— This would be the peak of the empire's territorial extent. Han Empire of China in 2 CE. It is considered the first great empire in history or the first "world empire.

His Empire was succeeded by three Empires ruled by the Diadochi —the Seleucid , Ptolemaic , and Macedonian , which, despite being independent, are called the " Hellenistic Empire" by virtue of their similarities in culture and administration.

Meanwhile, in the western Mediterranean the Empires of Carthage and Rome began their rise. The Seleucid Empire broke apart and its former eastern part was absorbed by the Parthian Empire.

In India during the Axial Age appeared the Maurya Empire —a geographically extensive and powerful empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty from — BC.

The empire was founded in BC by Chandragupta Maurya , who rapidly expanded his power westward across central and western India, taking advantage of the disruptions of local powers following the withdrawal by Alexander the Great.

By BC, the Maurya Empire had fully occupied northwestern India as well as defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander.

In the reign of Asoka Buddhism spread to become the dominant religion in ancient India. It has been estimated that the Maurya dynasty controlled an unprecedented one-third of the world's entire economy, was home to one-third of the world's population at the time an estimated 50 million out of million humans , contained the world's largest city of the time Pataliputra , estimated to be larger than Rome under Emperor Trajan and according to Megasthenes , the empire wielded a military of , infantry, 30, cavalry, and 9, war elephants.

Ying Zheng connected all the existing defense walls of northern China into what is known today Great Wall of China which marked the northern frontier of China.

The Romans were the first nation to invent and embody the concept of empire in their two mandates: Many languages, cultural values, religious institutions, political divisions, urban centers, and legal systems can trace their origins to the Roman Empire.

The Roman Empire governed and rested on exploitative actions. They took slaves and money from the peripheries to support the imperial center.

This term was legitimized and justified by writers like Cicero who wrote that only under Roman rule could the world flourish and prosper.

People started to build houses like Romans, eat the same food, wear the same clothes and engage in the same cruel games.

The Latin word imperium , referring to a magistrate's power to command, gradually assumed the meaning "The territory in which a magistrate can effectively enforce his commands", while the term " imperator " was originally an honorific meaning "commander".

The title was given to generals who were victorious in battle. Thus, an "empire" may include regions that are not legally within the territory of a state, but are under either direct or indirect control of that state, such as a colony , client state , or protectorate.

Although historians use the terms "Republican Period" and "Imperial Period" to identify the periods of Roman history before and after absolute power was assumed by Augustus , the Romans themselves continued to refer to their government as a republic, and during the Republican Period, the territories controlled by the republic were referred to as " Imperium Romanum ".

The emperor's actual legal power derived from holding the office of "consul", but he was traditionally honored with the titles of imperator commander and princeps first man or, chief.

Later, these terms came to have legal significance in their own right; an army calling their general " imperator " was a direct challenge to the authority of the current emperor.

The legal systems of France and its former colonies are strongly influenced by Roman law. The president, as "commander-in-chief" of the armed forces, reflects the ancient Roman titles imperator princeps.

In Western Asia , the term " Persian Empire " came to denote the Iranian imperial states established at different historical periods of pre— Islamic and post—Islamic Persia.

In East Asia , various Celestial empires arose periodically between periods of war, civil war, and foreign conquests.

The greatest of them was the Tang Empire AD The 7th century saw the emergence of the Islamic Empire , also referred to as the Islamic Caliphate.

By the beginning of the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate had become the largest empire in history, it would not be surpassed in size until the establishment of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century.

In the Caliphate clashed with the Tang China at Talas. By this time only these two Empires stretched between the Atlantic and the Pacific. From the 11th century Moroccan empires began to appear, starting with the Almoravid Empire , dominating territories in both Europe as well as Sub-Saharan Africa.

The Ajuran Sultanate was a Somali empire in the medieval times that dominated the Indian Ocean trade. They belonged to the Somali Muslim sultanate [21] [22] [23] that ruled over large parts of the Horn of Africa in the Middle Ages.

Through a strong centralized administration and an aggressive military stance towards invaders, the Ajuran Sultanate successfully resisted an Oromo invasion from the west and a Portuguese incursion from the east during the Gaal Madow and the Ajuran-Portuguese wars.

Trading routes dating from the ancient and early medieval periods of Somali maritime enterprise were strengthened or re-established, and foreign trade and commerce in the coastal provinces flourished with ships sailing to and coming from many kingdoms and empires in East Asia , South Asia , Southeast Asia , Europe , Middle East , North Africa and East Africa.

In the 7th century, Maritime Southeast Asia witnessed the rise of a Buddhist thallasocracy, the Srivijaya Empire , which thrived for years and was succeeded by the Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit Empire that ruled from the 13th to 15th centuries.

In the Southeast Asian mainland, the Hindu-Buddhist Khmer Empire was centered in the city of Angkor and flourished from the 9th to 13th centuries.

Following the demise of the Khmer Empire, the Siamese Empire flourished alongside the Burmese and Lan Chang Empires from the 13th through the 18th centuries.

In Eastern Europe, during the year of , the Byzantine Empire was forced to recognize the Imperial title of Bulgarian rulers who were called Tsars.

The Bulgarian Empire remained a major power in the Balkans until its fall in the late 14th century. The expansion of the Rashidun Empire.

Ajuran Sultanate in the 15th century. At the time, in the Medieval West , the title "empire" had a specific technical meaning that was exclusively applied to states that considered themselves the heirs and successors of the Roman Empire.

Yet, these states did not always fit the geographic, political, or military profiles of empires in the modern sense of the word. To legitimise their imperium , these states directly claimed the title of Empire from Rome.

The sacrum Romanum imperium Holy Roman Empire , which lasted from to , claimed to have exclusively comprehended Christian principalities, and was only nominally a discrete imperial state.

The Holy Roman Empire was not always centrally-governed, as it had neither core nor peripheral territories, and was not governed by a central, politico-military elite.

In , after the Fourth Crusade conquered Constantinople , the crusaders established a Latin Empire — in that city, while the defeated Byzantine Empire's descendants established two smaller, short-lived empires in Asia Minor: Constantinople was retaken in by the Byzantine successor state centered in Nicaea , re-establishing the Byzantine Empire until , by which time the Turkish - Muslim Ottoman Empire ca.

The Ottoman Empire was a successor of the Abbasid Empire and it was the most powerful empire to succeed the Abbasi empires at the time, as well as one of the most powerful empires in the world.

Likewise, with the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire in during the Napoleonic Wars — , the Austrian Empire — emerged reconstituted as the Empire of Austria—Hungary — , having "inherited" the imperium of Central and Western Europe from the losers of said wars.

In the thirteenth century, Genghis Khan expanded the Mongol Empire to be the largest contiguous empire in the world.

However, within two generations, the empire was separated into four discrete khanates under Genghis Khan's grandsons. The emergence of the Pax Mongolica had significantly eased trade and commerce across Asia.

Both existed for several generations before the arrival of the Europeans. Inca had gradually conquered the whole of the settled Andean world as far south as today Santiago in Chile.

In Oceania , the Tonga Empire was a lonely empire that existed from the Medieval to the Modern period.

In the 15th century, Castile Spain landing in the so-called " New World " first, the Americas, and later Australia , along with Portuguese travels around the Cape of Good Hope and along the coast of Africa bordering the southeast Indian Ocean, proved ripe opportunities for the continent's Renaissance -era monarchies to establish colonial empires like those of the ancient Romans and Greeks.

In the Old World, colonial imperialism was attempted and established on the Canary Islands and Ireland. These conquered lands and people became de jure subordinates of the empire, rather than de facto imperial territories and subjects.

Such subjugation often elicited "client-state" resentment that the empire unwisely ignored, leading to the collapse of the European colonial imperial system in the late 19th century and the early and midth century.

In the 18th century, the Spanish Empire was at its height because of the great mass of goods taken from conquered territory in the Americas nowadays Mexico , parts of the United States , the Caribbean , most of Central America, and South America and the Philippines.

Red shows self-governing North American British colonies and pink shows claimed and largely indirectly controlled territories in The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent.

The map includes all Spanish territories, but only territories Portugal had during the Iberian Union.

The Russian Empire in became the second largest contiguous empire to have ever existed. The Russian Federation is currently the largest state on the planet.

In , the British Empire was the largest empire in history. The evolution of the French Empire in the 18th to the 20th century.

The 19th to 20th century Japanese Empire at its maximum extent, Premier Empire , Second French Empire , and French colonial empire each attempted establishing a western imperial hegemony centered in France.

The Ashanti or Asante were a powerful, militaristic and highly disciplined people in West Africa. Their military power, which came from effective strategy and an early adoption of European firearms , created an empire that stretched from central Akanland in modern-day Ghana to present day Benin and Ivory Coast , bordered by the Dagomba kingdom to the north and Dahomey to the east.

Due to the empire's military prowess, sophisticated hierarchy, social stratification and culture, the Ashanti empire had one of the largest historiographies of any indigenous Sub-Saharan African political entity.

The Sikh Empire — was established in the Punjab region of India. The empire collapsed when its founder, Ranjit Singh, died and its army fell to the British.

During the same period, the Maratha Empire also known as the Maratha Confederacy was a Hindu state located in present-day India. It existed from to , and at its peak, the empire's territories covered much of Southern Asia.

The empire was founded and consolidated by Shivaji. After the death of Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb, it expanded greatly under the rule of the Peshwas.

In , the Maratha army lost the Third Battle of Panipat, which halted the expansion of the empire. Later, the empire was divided into a confederacy of states which, in , were lost to the British during the Anglo-Maratha wars.

The Empire of Brazil was the only South American modern monarchy, established by the heir of the Portuguese Empire as an independent nation eventually became an emerging international power.

The new country was huge but sparsely populated and ethnically diverse. The British established their first empire — in North America by colonising lands that made up British America , including parts of Canada , the Caribbean and the Thirteen Colonies.

In , the Continental Congress of the Thirteen Colonies declared itself independent from the British Empire, thus beginning the American Revolution.

Britain turned towards Asia, the Pacific, and later Africa, with subsequent exploration leading to the rise of the Second British Empire — , which was followed by the Industrial Revolution and Britain's Imperial Century — It became the largest empire in world history, encompassing one quarter of the world's land area and one fifth of its population.

The term is most commonly used to describe the U. Despite these systematic differences, the political objectives and strategies of the United States government have been quite similar to those of previous empires.

Regardless of the supposed motivation for this constant expansion, all of these land acquisitions were carried out by imperialistic means.

This was done by financial means in some cases, and by military force in others. However, some scholars still consider U. In time, an empire may change from one political entity to another.

For example, the Holy Roman Empire, a German re-constitution of the Roman Empire , metamorphosed into various political structures i.

The Roman Empire, perennially reborn, also lived on as the Byzantine Empire Eastern Roman Empire - temporarily splitting into the Latin Empire , the Empire of Nicaea and the Empire of Trebizond before its remaining territory and centre became part of the Ottoman Empire.

After the Empire of Japan retained its Emperor but lost its colonial possessions and became the State of Japan. An autocratic empire can become a republic e.

The dissolution of the Austro—Hungarian Empire after provides an example of a multi-ethnic superstate broken into constituent nation-oriented states: After the Second World War — , the deconstruction of colonial empires quickened and became commonly known as decolonisation.

The British Empire evolved into a loose, multinational Commonwealth of Nations , while the French colonial empire metamorphosed to a Francophone commonwealth.

The same process happened to the Portuguese Empire , which evolved into a Lusophone commowealth , and to the former territories of the extinct Spanish Empire , which alongside the Lusophone countries of Portugal and Brazil , created a Ibero-American commowealth.

The British gave Hong Kong back to China in after years of rule. The Portuguese territory of Macau reverted to China in Macau and Hong Kong did not become part of the provincial structure of China; they have autonomous systems of government as Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China.

Fourteen British Overseas Territories remain under British sovereignty. In Eliot A. Cohen summarized the contemporary transition from empire: The fall of the Roman Empire in the West is seen as one of the most pivotal points in all of human history.

This event traditionally marks the transition from classical civilization to the birth of Europe.

There is still a debate over the cause of the fall of one of the largest empires in the history. Piganiol argues that the Roman Empire under its authority can be described as "a period of terror", [45] holding its imperial system accountable for its failure.

Another theory blames the rise of Christianity as the cause, arguing that the spread of certain Christian ideals caused internal weakness of the military and state.

At the same time the Huns, a nomadic warrior people from the steppes of Asia, are also putting extreme pressure on the German tribes outside of the Roman frontier.

The German tribes really had no other choice, geographically, but to move into Roman territory. At this point, without increased funding, the Roman army could no longer effectively defend its borders against major waves of Germanic tribes.

This inability is illustrated by the crushing defeat at Adrianople in C. Contemporaneously, the concept of empire is politically valid, yet is not always used in the traditional sense.

For example, Japan is considered the world's sole remaining empire because of the continued presence of the Japanese Emperor in national politics.

Despite the semantic reference to imperial power, Japan is a de jure constitutional monarchy , with a homogeneous population of million people that is Characterizing some aspects of American foreign policy and international behavior as " American Empire " is controversial but not uncommon.

This characterization is controversial because of the strong tendency in American society to reject claims of American imperialism.

The initial motivations for the inception of the United States eventually led to the development of this tendency, which has been perpetuated by the country-wide obsession with this national narrative.

The United States was formed because colonists did not like being under control of the British Empire. Essentially, the United States was formed in an attempt to reject imperialism.

This active rejection of imperialist status is not limited to high-ranking government officials, as it has been ingrained in American society throughout its entire history.

Stuart Creighton Miller posits that the public's sense of innocence about Realpolitik cf. American exceptionalism impairs popular recognition of US imperial conduct since it governed other countries via surrogates.

These surrogates were domestically-weak, right-wing governments that would collapse without US support. Bush's Secretary of Defense, Donald Rumsfeld , said: We're not imperialistic; we never have been.

Since the European Union began in as a west European trade bloc , it has established its own currency, the Euro , established discrete military forces, and exercised its limited hegemony in parts of eastern Europe and Asia.

The political scientist Jan Zielonka suggests that this behaviour is imperial because it coerces its neighbouring countries into adopting its European economic, legal, and political structures.

In his book review of Empire by Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri , Mehmet Akif Okur posits that since the 11 September terrorist attacks in the US, the international relations determining the world's balance of power political, economic, military have been altered.

These alterations include the intellectual political science trends that perceive the contemporary world's order via the re-territorrialisation of political space , the re-emergence of classical imperialist practices the "inside" vs.

These changes constitute the "Age of Nation Empires"; as imperial usage, nation-empire denotes the return of geopolitical power from global power blocs to regional power blocs i.

Nation-empire regionalism claims sovereignty over their respective regional political social, economic, ideologic , cultural, and military spheres.

The chart below shows a timeline of polities that have been called empires. Dynastic changes are marked with a white line.

Empires have been the dominant international organization in world history:. The fact that tribes, peoples, and nations have made empires points to a fundamental political dynamic, one that helps explain why empires cannot be confined to a particular place or era but emerged and reemerged over thousands of years and on all continents.

Empires … can be traced as far back as the recorded history goes; indeed, most history is the history of empires It is the nation-state—an essentially 19th-century ideal—that is the historical novelty and that may yet prove to be the more ephemeral entity.

In fact, it is a very distorted view of even the Westphalian era not to recognize that it was always at least as much about empires as it was states.

Almost all of the emerging European states no sooner began to consolidate than they were off on campaigns of conquest and commerce to the farthest reaches of the globe… Ironically, it was the European empires that carried the idea of the sovereign territorial state to the rest of the world… [65].

Empire has been the historically predominant form of order in world politics. Looking at a time frame of several millennia, there was no global anarchic system until the European explorations and subsequent imperial and colonial ventures connected disparate regional systems, doing so approximately years ago.

Prior to this emergence of a global-scope system, the pattern of world politics was characterized by regional systems. These regional systems were initially anarchic and marked by high levels of military competition.

But almost universally, they tended to consolidate into regional empires… Thus it was empires—not anarchic state systems—that typically dominated the regional systems in all parts of the world… Within this global pattern of regional empires, European political order was distinctly anomalous because it persisted so long as an anarchy.

Similarly, Anthony Pagden , Eliot A. Empires have played a long and critical part in human history Rome was evoked as a model of splendor and order into the Twentieth century and beyond… By comparison, the nation-state appears as a blip on the historical horizon, a state form that emerged recently from under imperial skies and whose hold on the world's political imagination may well prove partial or transitory… The endurance of empire challenges the notion that the nation-state is natural, necessary, and inevitable….

Political scientist Hedley Bull wrote that "in the broad sweep of human history…the form of states system has been the exception rather than the rule.

The history of interstate relations was largely that of successive great empires. The pattern of international political change during the millennia of the pre-modern era has been described as an imperial cycle… World politics was characterized by the rise and decline of powerful empires, each of which in turn unified and ordered its respective international system.

The recurrent pattern in every civilization of which we have knowledge was for one state to unify the system under its imperial domination.

The propensity toward universal empire was the principal feature of pre-modern politics. Historian Michael Doyle who undertook an extensive research on empires extended the observation into the modern era:.

Empires have been the key actors in world politics for millennia. They helped create the interdependent civilizations of all the continents… Imperial control stretches through history, many say, to the present day.

Empires are as old as history itself… They have held the leading role ever since. Expert on warfare Quincy Wright generalized on what he called "universal empire"—empire unifying all the contemporary system:.

Balance of power systems have in the past tended, through the process of conquest of lesser states by greater states, towards reduction in the number of states involved, and towards less frequent but more devastating wars, until eventually a universal empire has been established through the conquest by one of all those remaining.

German Sociologist Friedrich Tenbruck finds that the macro-historic process of imperial expansion gave rise to global history in which the formations of universal empires were most significant stages.

The overall conclusion was that the balance of power was inherently unstable order and usually soon broke in favor of imperial order.

When this [imperial] pattern of political history is found in the New World as well as in the Old World, it looks as if the pattern must be intrinsic to the political history of societies of the species we call civilizations, in whatever part of the world the specimens of this species occur.

If this conclusion is warranted, it illuminates our understanding of civilization itself. Most states systems have ended in universal empire, which has swallowed all the states of the system.

The examples are so abundant that we must ask two questions: Is there any states system which has not led fairly directly to the establishment of a world empire?

Does the evidence rather suggest that we should expect any states system to culminate in this way? The earliest thinker to approach the phenomenon of universal empire from a theoretical point of view was Polybius 2: In previous times events in the world occurred without impinging on one another Fichte , having witnessed the battle at Jena in when Napoleon overwhelmed Prussia, described what he perceived as a deep historical trend:.

There is necessary tendency in every cultivated State to extend itself generally Such is the case in Ancient History … As the States become stronger in themselves and cast off that [Papal] foreign power, the tendency towards a Universal Monarchy over the whole Christian World necessarily comes to light… This tendency Whether clearly or not—it may be obscurely—yet has this tendency lain at the root of the undertakings of many States in Modern Times Although no individual Epoch may have contemplated this purpose, yet is this the spirit which runs through all these individual Epochs, and invisibly urges them onward.

Fichte's later compatriot, Geographer Alexander von Humboldt — , in the mid-Nineteenth century observed a macro-historic trend of imperial growth in both Hemispheres: Two other contemporaries— Kang Yu-wei and George Vacher de Lapouge —stressed that imperial expansion cannot indefinitely proceed on the definite surface of the globe and therefore world empire is imminent.

Kang Yu-wei in believed that the imperial trend will culminate in the contest between Washington and Berlin [86] and Vacher de Lapouge in estimated that the final contest will be between Russia and America in which America is likely to triumph.

This undoubtedly is the logical final stage in the geopolitical theory of evolution. The world is no longer large enough to harbor several self-contained powers The trend toward world domination or hegemony of a single power is but the ultimate consummation of a power-system engrafted upon an otherwise integrated world.

And the onrush of this trend may not come to rest until it has asserted itself throughout our planet… The global order still seems to be going through its birth pangs … With the last tempest barely over, a new one is gathering.

The year after the War and in the first year of the nuclear age, Albert Einstein and British Philosopher Bertrand Russell , known as prominent pacifists, outlined for the near future a perspective of world empire world government established by force.

Einstein believed that, unless world government is established by agreement, an imperial world government would come by war or wars.

Originally drafted as a secret study for the Office of Strategic Services the precursor of the CIA in [95] and published as a book three years later, The Struggle for the World If either of the two Superpowers wins, the result would be a universal empire which in our case would also be a world empire.

The historical stage for a world empire had already been set prior to and independently of the discovery of atomic weapons but these weapons make a world empire inevitable and imminent.

In the course of the decision, both of the present antagonists may, it is true, be destroyed, but one of them must be. Today war has become an instrument of universal destruction, an instrument that destroys the victor and the vanquished … At worst, victor and loser would be undistinguishable under the leveling impact of such a catastrophe… At best, the destruction on one side would not be quite as great as on the other; the victor would be somewhat better off than the loser and would establish, with the aid of modern technology, his domination over the world.

The outcome of the Third World War This denouement was foreshadowed, not only by present facts, but by historical precedents, since, in the histories of other civilizations, the time of troubles had been apt to culminate in the delivery of a knock-out blow resulting in the establishment of a universal state The year this volume of A Study of History was published, US Secretary of State John Foster Dulles announced " a knock-out blow " as an official doctrine, a detailed Plan was elaborated and Fortune magazine mapped the design.

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Dadurch sollten die Spannungen zwischen den Bevölkerungsgruppen abgebaut werden. In anderen Projekten Commons. Britisch-Honduras , die letzte verbliebene Kolonie auf dem amerikanischen Festland, erhielt das Recht zur Selbstverwaltung, benannte sich in Belize um und erlangte die vollständige Unabhängigkeit. Er hatte gerademal ein Alter von 33 Jahren erreicht. Nur für eine begrenzte Zeit. Play Mobile Slots for Real Money. Beide Staaten lehnten den europäischen Kolonialismus ab, wenngleich bei den Amerikanern und Westeuropäern der Antikommunismus weitaus stärker ausgeprägt war als der Antiimperialismus und die Briten deshalb weiterhin Unterstützung erhielten. Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Sie haben ein Freispiel gewonnen. Zur selben Zeit gewannen antikolonialistische Bewegungen an Bedeutung.

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At the height of its power, the empire encompassed approximately 8 million km2. The empire was forged by Cyrus the Great, and spanned three continents: Asia, Africa and Europe.

The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered on the capital of Constantinople, and ruled by emperors in direct succession to the ancient Roman emperors.

It was called the Roman Empire, and also Romania. During its existence, of over a thousand years, the Empire remained one of the most powerful economic, cultural and military forces in Europe, despite setbacks and territorial losses, especially during the Roman—Persian and Byzantine—Arab Wars.

The Empire received a mortal blow in by the Fourth Crusade , when it was dissolved and divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms.

During the Chinese period of warring states, the whole of China was embroiled in a civil war as the different kingdoms within it battled it out with each other in the quest for supremacy.

The period of the Han Dynasty is considered a golden age in Chinese history in terms of scientific achievement, technological advance, economic, cultural and political stability.

Even to this day, most Chinese people refer to themselves as the Han people. As a result, the legacy it imprinted on these conquered lands is tremendous in terms of political reform, cultural exchanges and way of life.

The English language, which it spread, is the second most-widely spoken language in the world today, and many linguistics agree that English is the defacto standard language of the world.

The British empire is definitely one of the most influential empires ever to have existed in human history.

Despite being relatively small in terms of Empires, its influence on the history of central Europe is still felt today. Incredibly the Empire lasted from the early middle ages ages to the 19th century.

Upon its collapse, the following nations emerged: The Russian Empire was a state that existed from until the Russian Revolution of It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia, and the predecessor of the Soviet Union.

Far from being impossible or exceedingly improbable, systemic hegemony is likely under two conditions: The geopolitical condition of "global closure" [] will remain to the end of history.

Since "the contemporary international system is global, we can rule out the possibility that geographic expansion of the system will contribute to the emergence of a new balance of power, as it did so many times in the past.

One of leading experts on world-system theory , Christopher Chase-Dunn , noted that the circumscription theory is applicable for the global system, since the global system is circumscribed.

Given "constant spatial parameters" of the global system, its unipolar structure is neither historically unusual nor theoretically surprising.

Randall Schweller theorized that a "closed international system," such as the global became a century ago, would reach " entropy " in a kind of thermodynamic law.

Once the state of entropy is reached, there is no going back. The initial conditions are lost forever. Stressing the curiosity of the fact, Schweller writes that since the moment the modern world became a closed system, the process has worked in only one direction: Thus unipolarity might represent the entropy—stable and permanent loss of variation—in the global system.

Chalmers Johnson argues that the US globe-girding network of hundreds of military bases already represents a global empire in its initial form:.

For a major power, prosecution of any war that is not a defense of the homeland usually requires overseas military bases for strategic reasons.

After the war is over, it is tempting for the victor to retain such bases and easy to find reasons to do so. Commonly, preparedness for a possible resumption of hostilities will be invoked.

Simon Dalby associates the network of bases with the Roman imperial system:. That [military] presence literally builds the cultural logic of the garrison troops into the landscape, a permanent reminder of imperial control.

Conventional maps of US military deployments understate the extent of America's military reach. A Defense Department map of the world, which shows the areas of responsibility of the five major regional commands , suggests that America's sphere of military influence is now literally global … The regional combatant commanders— the 'pro-consuls' of this imperium —have responsibility for swaths of territory beyond the wildest imaginings of their Roman predecessors.

Another Harvard Historian Charles S. Maier opens his Among Empires: American Ascendancy and Its Predecessors with these words: Compared with which, the foundation of the Macedonian, the Roman and the British, sink into insignificance.

What previous empire subjugated the entire world? Nothing has ever existed like this disparity of power. The Pax Britannica was run on the cheap.

The Roman Empire stretched further afield, but there was another great empire in Persia and a larger one in China. There is … no comparison.

Times Atlas of Empires numbers 70 empires in the world history. Niall Ferguson lists numerous parallels between them and the United States.

All dominant empires thought they were special. In , Historian Ludwig Dehio predicted global unification due to the circumscription of the global system, although he did not use this term.

Being global, the system can neither expand nor be subject to external intrusion as the European states system had been for centuries:.

In all previous struggles for supremacy, attempts to unite the European peninsula in a single state have been condemned to failure primarily through the intrusion of new forces from outside the old Occident.

The Occident was an open area. But the globe was not, and, for that very reason, ultimately destined to be unified… And this very process [of unification] was clearly reflected in both World Wars.

Fifteen years later, Dehio confirmed his hypothesis: The European system owed its durability to its overseas outlet. During the same time, Quincy Wright developed a similar concept.

Balance-of-power politics has aimed less at preserving peace than at preserving the independence of states and preventing the development of world empire.

In the course of history, the balance of power repeatedly reemerged, but on ever-wider scale. Eventually, the scale became global.

Five scholars— Hornell Hart , [] Raoul Naroll , [] Louis Morano, [] Rein Taagepera [] and the author of the circumscription theory Robert Carneiro [] [] —researched expanding imperial cycles.

They worked with historical atlases but the advent of YouTube provided us with a better visualization. Naroll and Carneiro found that this time is close at hand: The founder of the Paneuropean Union , Richard von Coudenhove-Kalergi , writing yet in , drew a more specific and immediate future imperial project: No imperialism, but technical and strategic problems of security urge America to rule the skies of the globe, just as Britain during the last century ruled the seas of the world… Pacifists and anti-imperialists will be shocked by this logic.

They will try to find an escape. But they will try in vain… At the end of the war the crushing superiority of American plane production will be an established fact… The solution of the problem … is by no means ideal, nor even satisfactory.

But it is the minor evil… []. This period would be necessary transitory stage before World State is eventually established, though he did not specify how the last transformation is expected to occur.

Coudenhove-Kalergi's follower in the teleological theory of World State, Toynbee, supposed the traditional way of universal conquest and emphasized that the world is ripe for conquest: For a post-Hitlerian empire-builder, Hitler's derelict legacy was a gift of the Gods.

Dissociating America from Rome, Eisenhower gave a pessimistic forecast. In , before he became President, he had written on West Europe: What we must do is to assist these [West European] peoples.

The ultimate form of empire was described by Michael Doyle in his Empires. It is empire in which its two main components—the ruling core and the ruled periphery—merged to form one integrated whole.

At this stage the empire as defined ceases to exist and becomes world state. Doyle examplifies the transformation on the case of the Roman Emperor Caracalla whose legislation in AD extended the Roman citizenship to all inhabitants of the Mediterranean world.

A "world empire would be an unstable equilibrium, still subject to the struggle for recognition. The article is partly a reply on the published a year earlier bestseller The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers which predicted imminent US "imperial overstretch.

There will then be a true world state, and it will be possible to forget that it will have owed its origin to conquest.

Both "were good auguries for the prospect that, in a post-Modern chapter of Western history, a supranational commonwealth originally based on the hegemony of a paramount power over its satellites might eventually be put on the sounder basis of a constitutional partnership in which all the people of all the partner states would have their fare share in the conduct of common affairs.

Historian Maks Ostrovski finds above mentioned cosmopolitan reformations to be the characteristic fate of persistent empires.

When such a reformation occurs in our world, he writes, the green card would be abolished since all earth inhabitants would have it by birth.

This cosmopolitan World State, as the records of earlier circumscribed civilizations suggest, will last millennia. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the political and historical term. For other uses, see Empire disambiguation. The neutrality of this article is disputed.

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July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Mongol Empire in the 13th century. List of empires List of largest empires List of extinct countries, empires, etc.

List of countries spanning more than one continent. Retrieved 21 October Globalization and Violence, Vol.

Globalizing Empires, Old and New. Growth-Decline Curves, B. Retrieved 26 October An Essential Anthology , eds. Aldine Publishing Company, , p The Shaping of Western Civilization: From Antiquity to the Enlightenment.

University of Toronto Press. Archived from the original on September 29, Retrieved September 23, The Story behind the World's Borders.

Guzman, "Were the barbarians a negative or positive factor in ancient and medieval history? Random House; 1st edition, year: The East India Company: And the British Empire in the Far East.

Retrieved 16 February National Book Trust, India. A Clash of Worldviews , p90, "By , the British Empire presided over million people—one-quarter of the world's population—and comprised more than 13 million square miles.

By common law, trail by jury, the King James Authorized Version of the Bible, the English language, and the British navy had been spread around the globe.

Nation-states and nationalisms organization, ideology and solidarity. The Geopolitics of American Insecurity: Terror, Power and Foreign Policy.

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University of Chicago Press. The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective. Cambridge University Press His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven.

His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His eyes one blue, one brown revealed a dewy, feminine quality.

He had a high complexion and a harsh voice. Ancient authors recorded that Alexander was so pleased with portraits of himself created by Lysippos that he forbade other sculptors from crafting his image.

Some of Alexander's strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents. His mother had huge ambitions, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.

According to Plutarch, among Alexander's traits were a violent temper and rash, impulsive nature, [] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions.

He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader. Alexander was erudite and patronized both arts and sciences.

During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia.

He appears to have believed himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself. Alexander married three times: He lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon.

Alexander also had a close relationship with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion , the son of a Macedonian noble. Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy.

Aelian, however, writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles, and Hephaestion that of Patroclus , the latter hinting that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles.

Green argues that there is little evidence in ancient sources that Alexander had much carnal interest in women; he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life.

Alexander accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings, but he used it rather sparingly, [] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".

Alexander's legacy extended beyond his military conquests. His campaigns greatly increased contacts and trade between East and West, and vast areas to the east were significantly exposed to Greek civilization and influence.

His chroniclers recorded valuable information about the areas through which he marched, while the Greeks themselves got a sense of belonging to a world beyond the Mediterranean.

Alexander's most immediate legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.

Taking advantage of this power vacuum, Chandragupta Maurya referred to in Greek sources as "Sandrokottos" , of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab , and with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire.

Over the course of his conquests, Alexander founded some twenty cities that bore his name , most of them east of the Tigris.

At first, the cities must have been inhospitable, little more than defensive garrisons. Hellenization was coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest.

This culminated in his aspiration to homogenize the populations of Asia and Europe. However, his successors explicitly rejected such policies. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the successor states.

The core of the Hellenistic culture promulgated by the conquests was essentially Athenian. The resulting syncretism known as Greco-Buddhism heavily influenced the development of Buddhism [ citation needed ] and created a culture of Greco-Buddhist art.

Some of the first and most influential figurative portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time, perhaps modeled on Greek statues of Apollo in the Greco-Buddhist style.

Greek astronomical treatise and Paulisa Siddhanta texts depict the influence of Greek astronomical ideas on Indian astronomy.

Following the conquests of Alexander the Great in the east, Hellenistic influence on Indian art was far-ranging. In the area of architecture , a few examples of the Ionic order can be found as far as Pakistan with the Jandial temple near Taxila.

Several examples of capitals displaying Ionic influences can be seen as far as Patna , especially with the Pataliputra capital , dated to the 3rd century BC.

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans, especially generals, who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements.

Pompey the Great adopted the epithet "Magnus" and even Alexander's anastole-type haircut, and searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness.

On the other hand, some Roman writers, particularly Republican figures, used Alexander as a cautionary tale of how autocratic tendencies can be kept in check by republican values.

Legendary accounts surround the life of Alexander the Great, many deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself.

Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus , invented a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris , queen of the mythical Amazons.

When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time.

In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance , later falsely ascribed to Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes.

This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages , [] containing many dubious stories, [] and was translated into numerous languages.

Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been depicted in many cultures. Alexander has figured in both high and popular culture beginning in his own era to the present day.

The Alexander Romance , in particular, has had a significant impact on portrayals of Alexander in later cultures, from Persian to medieval European to modern Greek.

Alexander features prominently in modern Greek folklore, more so than any other ancient figure. Any other answer would cause the mermaid to turn into a raging Gorgon who would drag the ship to the bottom of the sea, all hands aboard.

In pre-Islamic Middle Persian Zoroastrian literature, Alexander is referred to by the epithet gujastak , meaning "accursed", and is accused of destroying temples and burning the sacred texts of Zoroastrianism.

The Syriac version of the Alexander Romance portrays him as an ideal Christian world conqueror who prayed to "the one true God". According to Josephus , Alexander was shown the Book of Daniel when he entered Jerusalem, which described a mighty Greek king who would conquer the Persian Empire.

This is cited as a reason for sparing Jerusalem. In Hindi and Urdu , the name "Sikandar", derived from Persian, denotes a rising young talent.

Apart from a few inscriptions and fragments, texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander were all lost.

Their works are lost, but later works based on these original sources have survived. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the ancient king of Macedonia. For other uses, see Alexander the Great disambiguation. History of Macedonia ancient kingdom.

Government of Macedonia ancient kingdom. Battle of the Persian Gate. Indian campaign of Alexander the Great. Death of Alexander the Great.

Tomb of Alexander the Great. Partition of Babylon and Diadochi. Personal relationships of Alexander the Great. List of cities founded by Alexander the Great.

Alexander the Great in legend. Alexander the Great in historiography. Ancestors of Alexander the Great 8.

Amyntas III of Macedon 2. Philip II of Macedon Eurydice I of Macedon 1. Alexander the Great Alcetas I of Epirus 6.

Neoptolemus I of Epirus 3. History portal Greece portal Iran portal Egypt portal War portal. The Macedonians were a Greek tribe.

Historiography and scholarship agree that Alexander the Great was Greek. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered.

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